When I have read in scientific journals about these amazing creatures I am fascinated with their method of getting oxygen. Unlike humans who breathe in and out- through the lungs– hummingbirds have a one-way flow of air. Air flows into the lungs and then circulates around some other air sacs—9 of them to be exact to then be expelled out the nostrils but not via the lungs. This allows for richly oxygenated air to be constantly supplying the lung’s arteries with fuel for flight.
We have all seen the two species of hummingbirds in our area hover over flowers, fly backward (the only species of bird that can do this maneuver), do aerial gymnastics to fight off other hummers and in general “zip” around our yards. We have two species with an occasional rarity showing up. Anna’s hummingbirds stay year round but the Rufous hummers are only here in the summer months. If you are fortunate enough to go south there are many species of hummingbirds in the American Southwest and in Mexico – some with great variations in the coloration from our two species and some much larger or much smaller. Our two hummingbirds weigh about what a penny in your pocket weighs!
A continued question that people ask me is about feeding hummingbirds. Like most animals the closer to natural and real food is probably healthier so plant some nectar rich plants. This year I found some blue flowered plants at the Cedar Mill Farmer’s market, which I had never seen before. Amazingly the hummingbirds really like them—I wish I knew the name but I don’t— generally I had heard that they prefer red or orange or yellow flowers and always before they did seem to prefer my fuchsias or the crocosmias but this year the blue flowers are the more preferred food.
If you do choose to feed hummingbirds make sure to clean the feeder really regularly. This is a time commitment since in the hotter days the sugar water turns to vinegar within a day or two. Also mold grows rapidly so use a small brush designed for feeders and scrub away. I personally don’t use bleach since I am not confident I can rinse it enough to not have some traces left. Hard scrubbing does the trick. Also most Audubon sites do not recommend the use of red colorings often found in commercial foods—according to some experts this is not good for bird liver function. I generally “saturate” the water instead of using a specific recipe but there are recipes on line.
Besides all the amazing science and function—hummingbirds are simply inspiring creatures. What lovely pieces of natural beauty, which inspire delight and joy when we see them. We are soon to say goodbye to our summer guests the Rufous ones—ours were very prolific this year and are gathering now to fly south together—we must have at least six in our yard now drinking down the nectar in the feeder every day putting on “weight” to fly the thousands of miles. Amazing hummingbirds indeed.]]>
In many birding magazines or web sites the nuanced discussion is long and sometimes contradictory about when to call a particular bird species a nestling, a fledgling, a chick or duckling or some specific word such as cygnet for swans, a juvenile, an immature or a subadult. While we can leave these to ornithologists to debate it is a source of great pleasure as well as knowledge to see the variety in our own environments.
Generally when birds hatch they are relatively free of feathers or are covered with very fine “downy” feathers. As they grow these change into rather “fluffy” juvenile feathers. The young birds grow really quickly to achieve adult size in the space of a few weeks and can generally fly within a couple weeks of hatching. Therefore to see “babies” one looks not for size but for variations in feather patterns, color and also in bird behavior.
Last week I was sitting in my yard with a friend and we noticed two Downy Woodpeckers at the suet feeder. One was sitting on top of the feeder rather loudly verbalizing and flapping its feathers. The other obligingly got some suet and delivered a nice packet to the “chick” on the top of the feeder. Many young birds even though as large as the parent, able to fly and certainly able physically to peck at the suet still ask to be “fed” and will “beg”. A typical begging posture is one where the younger birds call in a high pitched tone and flap their feathers but don’t fly off. I have seen almost all species exhibit this behavior from the four Black Capped Chickadees who nested in our birdhouse on our deck to the Red Breasted Nuthatches and the American Robins.
Another clue to youth is that the feathers look “fluffier” and less colorful. Many birds do not develop the full adult coloration till many molts later. The most obvious to many American is the Bald Eagle, which can take 3-5 years to develop the white head that is particular to adult birds. Bald Eagles who are four years old are typically called sub-adults, which is the bird term for teenagers.
So notice what is in your yard—which Robins have spotted breasts indicating youth. Which Chickadees have larger beaks—the beak shape has not solidified to the adult shape yet. Which Woodpeckers have orange on the backs of heads rather than bright red—indicating a newly molted juvenile. These physical characteristics along with behavior can be clues to the newly hatched. Hopefully they enhance your enjoyment of the diversity in our own yards..]]>
During the time of rapid growth we can watch the various pairs of parents of the newly hatched chicks do the frenzied back and forth to the nest with beaks full of various insects/caterpillars/aphids/worms and other “high protein” foods needed for developing feathers and bones in the chicks. Our yard appears to have a great supply of worms. This makes me more mindful of the chemical use— how can I have a reasonable looking yard without dumping tons of chemicals which effects the soil composition and also gets into the bodies of the birds who forage there. Since becoming a bird watcher I have greatly reduced my yard chemical usage finding that the aphids on the roses are appreciated by the Black Capped Chickadees as they go back and forth to the hatchlings with several aphids per trip in their beaks. I have reduced my use of chemical lawn fertilizers in favor of the organic ones, which don’t kill off soil microorganisms and worms. I tolerate more weeds or I hand pull rather than using weed killers which I know the bird’s track back to the nests on their feet.
Watching these creatures has given me a new appreciation for my impact on their lives.
As the temperature rises the sources of protein and fat I have been offering such as suet gets “messier”. It melts when the sun comes out and I have heard of birds getting their feathers coated with melted suet— not helpful for rapid flight I would imagine. I just discovered a “new” source of protein for my “new parent” birds to offer – dried mealworms! One can order fresh mealworms but since they are alive they do require some attention to keep them alive and some find them “gross”. However dried mealworms are easy to use and a great source of protein. One can simply spread them on the ground or put in with other foods such as sunflower seeds or buy a specific dried mealworm feeder. If the birds are not attracted to the dry mealworms some sites recommend rehydrating them and putting them out in a bowl or simply on the ground. I didn’t find that necessary but it’s an option. The morning dew seems to hydrate them just fine.
Many birds at this time of year find these mealworms to be a welcome high protein addition to the feeder options—so look for Grosbeaks, Robins, and other insect eaters. I don’t have Bluebirds at my feeders but mealworms are known to be a favorite treat for them.
Last week I accidentally left a colander full of Bing Cherries after dinner on the deck. In the morning I was surprised to see the American Robin pair feasting on “my” cherries. My cherry tree has not ripened yet but when it does it attracts scores of Cedar Waxwings, Robins, and even California Quails. The Quail parents fly up into the tree and drop cherries to the chicks waiting below. Until then they have to make do with the accidental ones left out for them after dinner!
Enjoy attracting birds to your yard with a variety of food options as well as thoughtful plantings and use of yard chemicals. I found the mealworms at our local Pet Barn which also offers many other types of foods for wild birds… check it out.
Routinely I love to provide our local birds with materials to line their nests. Certainly there is a plethora of natural materials such as dried grasses, mosses and lichens. I always put out some other “soft” options such as dryer lint, bits of yarn leftovers from my knitting projects, balls of cat hair from the weekly brushing episodes and even bits of shredded paper from our enormous piles of paper shredding.
I was surprised when I read in the latest Martha Stewart Living this month that she had a section “for the birds” where she endorses the very same activity—putting out bits of cotton or other soft materials you may have. In the magazine of course they are arranged in a lovely fashion in a wooden box— I keep thinking these would blow off in a puff of light wind. Instead I put mine in an empty suet feeder. Just today I was on the deck watching our Black Capped Chickadee pair grabbing huge mouthfuls of cat hair to take into the hanging bird house they picked out from the several on our property! What a delight to see them “recycling” and hopefully enjoyed some soft linings for the new hatchlings soon to appear.
Our other local nest builder—the American Robin made one attempt at our neighbor’s house only to have the first nest blown away in last week’s “wind storm”—not much wind but apparently enough to blow away the rather light assortment of twigs and grasses. So they started over in a new location—and apparently they did this in one day. It was not there in the morning when I looked out and it was totally finished when I arrived back home in the evening—quite the feat for one day. Hopefully this one will be more sheltered from wind and rain—it looks pretty secure as you can see from this accompanying picture.
It gave me such a huge boost to think of my yarn scraps from my many projects over the past year being put to good use to shelter our first chicks—whether Robins or ducks of various sorts of other perching birds. The idea of our indoor cats contributing to the lives of birds is also a smile inducer! Go look outdoors to see what is in your yard and consider how you might contribute to the comfort of these creatures.]]>
I am noticing as well that the swallows have not yet returned to our pond. I check our records we have kept for the 12 plus years of living here. TODAY is the earliest date when swallows have arrived (March 9) but on average, later in March is more typical. Oregon Birders on Line articles note that swallows have been seen in the past couple of weeks– apparently migrating but not staying – at other areas in Washington County. (http://birding.aba.org/maillist/OR5) Our neighbor has a number of Swallow houses near the pond. Soon the Violet Green and Tree Swallows will be making their selections. As temperatures rise, there will soon be enough of a sustained series of insect hatches to support the Swallows and their brood. I look forward to watching them swoop over the ponds catching the latest insect hatch.
The flocks of Cackling Geese are dwindling. Just a month ago, two or three hundred spent each night on the pond. This morning there were about 20 Cacklers, which had spent the night. Time to move north to breeding grounds along the western coast of Alaska. These birds are often mistaken for the Canada goose, some of which become year-round residents. Cacklers are much smaller, about the size of Mallard ducks and have darker chest feathers than the much larger Canada goose. Their voice is referred to as a “cackling” call as opposed to the HONK HONK call of the Canada goose. I am always thrilled to be able to point out the differences to my friends and bird tour guests who find they never noticed the size difference, the voice difference or the subtle coloration differences. It’s often fun to notice something you had previously over-looked.
As spring begins to arrive we see trees forming buds and peony stems pushing out of the ground. Yet the hellebore flowers, like the Swallows, are some of our earliest spring “arrivals”. Our Black Capped Chickadees have started to enjoy the balls of cat hair and dryer lint I put out near our bird feeders. They take a beakful and go “feather” their nests with warm fluff. We have a variety of birdhouses for our local cavity nesters—which include the Red Breasted Nuthatch, the Chickadees and the Woodpeckers and Swallows. I also have a Wood Duck house—they are our only tree nesting duck—most other ducks nest on the ground. So be careful as you mow—we do have some ground nesters, which are very fragile such as the Juncos – we have a pair who builds their ground nest under a large bunch of daffodils every year. So be mindful as you walk and mow and weed.
Spending time outdoors may be a way of inviting variety into one’s life by connecting to seasonal changes. Noticing what’s new and what’s different can add awe and interest and draw your brain into making new connections. Smiling and going outdoors are really good for you!]]>
As I am outside looking at signs of spring in the garden I hear more bird song. The Robins are starting to sing their “Cherrio cheeriup” song—they typically are our first spring songsters starting before sunrise at 4:30 AM. I also see our House Finches starting to claim their high trees and sing their very complex song. The small, Red-breasted Nuthatch male has claimed one particularly tall tree and is doing his “ree-ree-ree” call over and over to warn off other males. Very soon our wintering visitors including the Golden-crowned Sparrows who sing a minor note “oh-dear-me” song will fly north to establish breeding areas. The most bizarre bird in my opinion is the very brightly colored Varied Thrush (I call him the Oregon State— as in OSU Beavers—not the “official” state bird– with his orange and black “stripes”). I still marvel at the number of screech and long note whistles that come from that bird. It isn’t really a song but a number of odd notes, which seem so “un birdlike” coming from a bird. If you ever want to listen to actual bird song recordings, the Cornell Ornithology lab has resources on their web site.
We humans have a significant portion of our brains wired to support vision. Compared to other mammals our brain territory for smell and sound are relatively small compared to our preference for sight. It is often therefore a soothing thing to listen to music or the sounds of nature. It gives the other parts of our brain an opportunity to experience what is right in front of us in new ways. The research about using nature sounds or calming music to help with relaxation is vast. Sometimes we just need to have a different perspective to calm ourselves or to be creative. Think about how different it is to listen more and use our sight less.
I had a very interesting experience last week with shutting off the noise, which surrounds us. I shut off the TV, shut off the electronics and just sat in the dark listening. And I heard a “Who who who who who”– a five part very soft call outside. I looked out the window and a Great Horned Owl was on my neighbor’s roof calling to another owl. This was such a treat and also a thing I would not have heard if I had continued with the typical noise and patterns of busy-ness.
Take a break. It’s good for the brain, good for the body and good for the soul. You can take a break by being quiet and listening to what surrounds you right now. See what you hear when you are quiet.]]>
The change in temperature brings new stresses and solutions to our wildlife. Occasionally and very rarely over the past 15 years I have lived here I have seen Bald Eagles. This past week the eagles have been regular visitors to the “buffet line” that this icy pond has become. I imagine that their usual diet of rodents and other small animals has been disrupted by this cold snap so they have sought out new food sources. Fortunately Bald Eagles are very flexible in what they eat— which allows them to thrive in different conditions. Apparently this week they prefer duck or goose although and occasional small minnow also seems to be on the menu.
In addition to the Eagle pair we have had several duck types not usually visiting our pond. Every year we do have several Hooded Mergansers who also fish for minnows and apparently do well since they stay for several months before leaving for their breeding grounds. They have had to share the pond with these interloping ducks over the past week—we have had visits from Northern Shovelers, Northern Pintails and even a Ring Necked Duck couple. These groups seemed to be resting while traveling around and did not stay—these ducks are vegetarians so possibly our pond is more suited to producing fish and frogs and snakes than duck weed or other plants.
So far our hummingbird feeder has not frozen. For those of us who recall our chemistry courses—water with dissolved sugar (and other solutes) freezes at a lower temperature than regular water. In some years past with prolonged colder temperatures the sugar water has frozen and then we hooked up a warming light to shine on the feeder—oh those birds have worked their way into our hearts. We also have a specially designed birdbath heater – clearly one does not put anything electrical near water! Unless designed for that purpose. I have seen many of our yard birds drinking and enjoying the “hot tub” since most of the puddles and other shallow bits of water are totally frozen.
While I don’t exactly enjoy layering up in coats and hats to go out or like to worry about slick streets, the other joys of winter are plentiful. The different birds we see, the beautiful outlines of the winter branches in the frost and the brilliant berries in the yard, which stand out, are all sources of wonder and joy. Get outside or look outside and be amazed.]]>
I had the good fortune to spend a recent dark and gloomy rainy day recovering from too much work so I sat and knit, drank tea, watched the day unfold out my window and rested. I also noticed several things about how my Cedar Mill backyard birds were eating that I have not thought about before.
Outside my window we have a collection of bird feeders. We also deliberately plant foods in the garden known to be attractive to birds—such as crab apple trees, holly bushes loaded with berries and we leave some leaves on the ground for cover for insects. We do not use pesticides so that allows the aphids to flourish on the roses so that the Chickadees can “act like a vacuum” going up and down the stems scooping up protein. I noticed a particular pair of Red Breasted Nuthatches going to the seed feeder and then taking their sunflower treat up to a specific branch where they lodged the seed into a crack where they then could hit it repetitively with their beaks to break it open to enjoy. Over and over to the same branch they went.
I also noted the Red Tailed Hawks, which generally I see feeding on rodents and snakes, swoop down and snatch up an unobservant Junco from the ground. I am used to seeing Coopers and Sharp Shinned Hawks eat other birds but had never seen the Red Tailed eat a bird. I think that since the wetlands were so flooded with large amounts of recent rainfall that the typical prey wasn’t available so this bird switched to what was around to eat.
The most vigorous eater of the day was by far the Varied Thrush. This is a winter bird for us since they breed in Alaska and northern Canada. This bird loves to throw leaves around looking for insects hiding underneath and I often noted this bird was about to appear by the amount of leaves being thrown from behind a bush. The vote for “most adorable” went to the huge flock of Bushtits. These tiny birds with long tails flock up in the winter to feed and perch together. In the spring they pair up to build nests. The flock at our feeder had at least fifty tiny birds eating our suet. Such small beaks but such large bites of suet. I bet they need a lot of food to keep warm. They visited the feeder so many times that by the end of the day the entire suet block was gone. Now other birds did help eat the suet such as Yellow Rumped Warblers, Black Capped Chickadees, and Downy Woodpeckers. Northern Flickers, one Ruby Crowned Kinglet and unfortunately some bully Starlings. But most of the eating was done by the Bushtits.
Scientists have some specific names for types of diets in birds—
Avivorous means to eat other birds, fugivorous means to eat fruit (which few birds eat as their sole diet but many will add), mucivorous (sap eaters like woodpeckers), palynivorous which means pollen eaters and ophiniophagous—snake eaters. Many birds are omnivorous which means they eat several categories. In our area for example Anna’s hummingbirds prefer nectar (nectivorous) but will switch to eating insects in the winter months (insectivorous) when no flowers are blooming.
Birds eat in amazingly diverse ways—some eat fruit, others eat snakes. Some eat by themselves and others in social flocks. However the phrase “eating like a bird” does not seem to hold up to scrutiny of real bird behavior—most eat a lot and often and very few are incredibly inflexible about what to eat. The major difference appears to be that birds don’t eat for “non food” reasons like humans do. We eat to be comforted, to signal our status or to have contact in addition to our need for nutrition. So maybe we should “eat like birds” – in some ways at least.
On a recent birding outing in Ridgefield National Wildlife Preserve to see Sandhill Cranes our guide—the local manager of the refuge was very clear that camouflage clothing was helpful in not spooking the birds. I decided to do some research about this often repeated bit of advice to see what evidence there was for this recommendation. Before I get to the data I want to share the observation that the birds knew we were there long before they saw him in his camo coat— they probably heard us or smelled us and in any event right after we parked (out of their sight) , we heard them moving away from the edge of the lake to the other side— didn’t even get a chance to check out the various colors of coats!
A Scientific American from 2006 on What Birds See was illuminating. This summary of the cells in the backs of our eyes which allow us to see colors was explained in great detail. Basically birds have many more types of these cells than humans and most probably can appreciate more depth of color than humans, can see better in dim light than humans and may be able to “see” other wavelengths such as ultraviolet in ways we humans cannot imagine. I then found an article by an ornithologist, Bryon K Butler who had opinions based on similar research about how birds see differently than humans. He invited us to consider the world from their point of view if we can imagine it.
He describes the bird vision as one which a very high capacity to detect minute movements. Therefore slow movements and being still at times are critical skills to keep birds from flying off. He hypothesizes that birds appreciate reflection more than we humans can. Therefore he says that shininess and UV reflection may be as important as color. (Think about your reflective sunglasses! Or your bling….) He then described how birds are very wary about being looked at directly—he believes this is a survival instinct to not have predators locating them so he personally “breaks up his face” with a hat with a brim and scans around indirectly to not scare the birds.
These are evidence-based ideas from scientists. As an avid outdoor person I would add some more practical ideas— like don’t wear things that make noise. I cannot tell you how often on Audubon birding outings that the person with “noisy” nylon rain gear which makes incredible amounts of noise as the arms swing back and forth and back and forth and back and forth—for sure you will not hear any bird sounds with that noise interference and most likely they’ll hear you before you see them too. Then there is the shoe issue— hard soled shoes on gravel make a lot of noise. Opt for something less stylish and more safe and quiet. You won’t be likely to slip and you’ll hear more natural sounds. You need to be comfortable—have plenty of pockets for your insect repellant, your snacks, your camera back up batteries and other necessities such as bird book etc. You need to be warm and dry so options to shed are most helpful. Otherwise I don’t really think that color is the key ingredient unless you WANT to attract hummingbirds—in which case red is the best color.
I have personally been “investigated” by my local yard Anna’s Hummingbirds when I was sitting in my back yard in my red shirt.
There is a funny book called Real Birders Don’t Wear White. Well I can tell you I have worn white shirts and sweaters and seen plenty of birds— the birds see you way before you see them whether you are in camo or white. It’s your behavior which allows you to see birds —. White might not be your choice for other reasons like mud or eating your picnic outside but that is a different issue..
Birdwatching can be a peaceful and calming activity. If instead you choose to rapidly try to “get a glimpse” so you can identify that bird you may just have scared it off. Instead sit for a bit, don’t judge what others are wearing and just breath and enjoy the sounds and the sights. That bird will probably stick around longer so you can enjoy seeing it…
And PS—you don’t have to go to Washington (Ridgefield) to see Cranes. I suggest going there to see Tundra and Trumpeter Swans! You can see many Sandhill Cranes flying overhead in Cedar Mill if you look up. Your clue will be their distinctive “gaaaarook” call as they fly along with a flock that sure doesn’t look like geese! During the late fall and early winter they fly further south. Some do stay at Ridgefield all winter and other places like Sauvie Island and an occasional one or two other local areas but most go to southern California or Mexico for the winter. And then of course in the spring they fly back overhead.
Bird feet are however quite fascinating due to the many types of feet there are if you take a look. Most perching birds sleep upright in trees—have you ever wondered why it is that they don’t fall off when sleeping? I wondered that so read up on the topic in an ornithology text. Bird feet have a special tendon that clamps down like a vise onto the branch when the bird is relaxed or sleeping on the branch. When the bird “stands up” the tendon relaxes so the bird can fly off—otherwise it secures the feet to the branch—truly amazing adaptation to life in trees!
Other types of bird feet do amazing feats for their feathered owners. The feet of coots have lobes on their feet to transfer heat. These birds tend to swim in warmer waters and instead of sweating they use the increase surface area of the feet to transfer heat out of their bodies. Most of us have seen the webbed feet of ducks and geese and the University of Oregon mascot makes use of the “webfoot” designation for many team graphics.
Other “water” birds which wade around soft edges of ponds have feet with very largely spread out toes to distribute the weight so they don’t sink. If you ever seen Great Blue Heron tracks on the sides of muddy ponds what you notice is how large the feet are for such a big bird.
Woodpeckers have an arrangement of toes to allow them to climb up and down scaly trunks—the toes are not fanned out. There are “fancy” scientific names for all these toe designs ( for example anisodactyl is the name of typical perching bird feet design). If you take a college ornithology course you too can learn these long names. For the more casual birder – simply noticing the variety of feet can increase your enjoyment of the many habitats that birds occupy.
Birds who get food by scratching in the dirt have longer “nails” than those who pluck nectar from flowers. Think about the long nails of chickens or some of our sparrows who scratch for insects under our bushes.
To me the feet of birds of prey (technically called raptors if they hunt in the day or owls if they hunt at night—there are some other distinguishing features of these groups but that is the major division)– are the most interesting. Hawks and owls use their feet to catch and kill their prey. They are strong, they have sharp claws and they are large. Owls have feet with feathers covering the toes. This is unusual in the bird world with most feet being covered with leathery scales but no feathers. Owls have feathers all the way to the tips—some researchers hypothesize that this keeps them warm all year as they hunt and others believe that the feathers allow for more sensory information about their prey to be conveyed to the brain. In any event one rarely sees owls during the day and almost always the feet are under the body. That was why it was so awesome to see this particular Horned Owl in the middle of the day with the feet exposed. In all my years of birding I have never been this close to a wild Great Horned nor been able to look so long at the various aspects of this magnificent hunter. I usually hear them calling in the spring at night. This image will become part of my gallery of special moments outside.
Go outside and see what is special to you. See what questions come up for you and what things amaze or inspire you. You might even wonder about where your feet take you—literally—and metaphorically. So do you move toward or away from new things, from inspiring things, from certain types of things??]]>